A Roadmap for 100% Renewable Energy in Morocco

In 2009, Morocco announced its goal to raise the share of renewable energies to 42% of its total installed capacity by 2020. And during the COP21, the government increased this to 52% by 2030.

Currently, renewable energies are the subject of a diversified portfolio for solar, wind and hydro anchored in a legislative framework, notably Law n. 13-09 on renewable energies to liberalise and develop the renewable energy sector in Morocco.

The progressive liberalisation of the energy sector has been accompanied by the establishment of institutions to take up the challenges of the energy transition. Further, in 2013, the government of Morocco announced the reform of fossil fuel subsidies, which cost 5% of its GDP.

Nevertheless, Morocco can go further and faster. In 2016, Morocco still imports 95% of domestic consumption. The country faces a growing electricity demand increasing at an annual rate of 6.6% in the last ten years. And forecasts for Morocco see an increase in temperatures of 0.5 to 1°C by 2020 and 1 to 1.5°C by 2050 and 2080. Rainfall could decline by 30% between now and the end of the century.

To move towards a 100% renewable energy system offers the opportunity to change this reality. The challenge for the country is not so much a lack of energy resources but to fundamentally transform the way in which the energy system is structured.

Today, there remain a good number of political, economic, technical and cultural obstacles which stand in the way or slow down the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system. Moreover, the majority of actions are concentrated on the electricity sector, neglecting the heating and cooling as well as the transport sector.

In order to address the complexity, challenges and opportunities of the energy transition in Morocco, the World Future Council organised a process of reflection for Moroccan actors playing a leading role in this transition: parliamentarians, political actors, academics and civil society.

In this spirit, parliamentary hearings, conversations, and roundtables were organised between 2014 and 2016, guided by the following questions:

  • Morocco’s current energy context: challenges, renewable energies potential and energy strategy
  • Morocco’s leading renewable energy projects: main features, total installed power, production capacity, estimated cost, financing and entry into service dates.
  • Socio-economic benefits of renewable energies in Morocco: challenges being addressed up by renewable energy projects.
  • Guidelines for energy transitions: legislative, institutional and economic reforms.
  • Principal challenges for deployment of renewable energies in Morocco: political, economic, technical and cultural.
  • Recommendations to guarantee a successful energy transition for Morocco.

Overall, the goal has been the to identify the solutions for putting into place a coherent political framework which allows the materialisation of a 100% renewable energy Morocco.



A roadmap for 100% RE in Morocco

Morocco, COP22 host country, has since 2009 prioritised renewable energies and energy efficiency. Aware of the nature of the opportunities and stakes confronting its energy landscape, the nation has mobilised to share the message about the urgency and advisability of changing the pathway.

In order to address the complexity, challenges and opportunities of the energy challenge, the World Future Council organised a process of reflection for Moroccan actors playing a leading role in this transition: parliamentarians, political actors, academics and civil society. The round tables and conversations we organised between 2014 and 2016 are reflected in this report. We also highlight solutions for putting into place a coherent political framework which allows the materialisation of a 100% renewable energy Morocco.

Oxford County’s Plan to realize 100% Renewable Energy by 2050

“How do we get to 100% Renewable Energy by 2050 in the County of Oxford? One of the strategies is to look beyond our borders.” This is why Jay Heaman, Manager of Strategic Initiatives and David Mayberry, Warden of Oxford County travelled to Germany to learn what people from around the world have accomplished. After visiting Rhein-Hunsrueck District, Frankfurt, Wolfhagen and attending the Kassel International Dialogue, Oxford County’s political decision makers laid out a framework for Oxford to become a “100% RE” community. It outlines how community, business, government, academic, national and international partners can work together while the fully developed plan, to be presented in fall this year, will also include specific targets, milestones and actions.

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Oxford County is a rural area covering 2,039 km² that encompasses 2 towns, 5 townships, and 1 city, with a population of 111,700. In addition to having long roots in farming, Oxford is rich in entrepreneurship and innovation, is located along highly accessible transportation routes. On June 24, 2015, the Council unanimously committed to 100% renewable energy by 2050. The motion put forward by Woodstock Mayor and County Councillor Trevor Birtch, who was inspired by the Global Learning Forum, placed Oxford as the first municipal government in Ontario to commit to a renewable energy target and only the second in Canada after Vancouver, BC. This commitment is for community-wide use of renewable energy not only for electricity, heating/cooling, and transportation, but also the primary industry, agriculture.

dENet, Exkursion Wolfhagen

“Collectively as a community, I am convinced that we can accomplish renewable energy as we try to wean ourselves off fossil fuels. It won’t be done this year and not next year, but if we set ourselves a goal, I am absolutely convinced, that we can do it.”  David Mayberry, Warden of Oxford County.

 

“Collectively as a community, I am convinced that we can accomplish renewable energy as we try to wean ourselves off fossil fuels. It won’t be done this year and not next year, but if we set ourselves a goal, I am absolutely convinced, that we can do it.” says David Mayberry, Warden of Oxford County. Motivated by the urgency to protect the planet for future generations, Jay Heaman, David Mayberry, Trevor Birtch have worked hard over the past 12 months, building on experiences from their partners including York University’s Sustainable Energy Initiative; the Canadian Urban Transit Research & Innovation Consortium (CUTRIC), Renewable Cities, World Future Council and the Global 100% RE campaign.

David Mayberry (Warden of Oxford County) and Jay Heaman (Manager of Strategic Initiatives, Oxford County)The Draft Plan uses as its framework 12 internationally endorsed criteria from the Kassel International Dialogue on 100% Renewable Energy report released in November 2015. The criteria are intended to serve as guideposts for local governments in planning to meet their 100% RE goals, from implementation to target setting through to strategies that enable 100% renewable energy. “The magic is how we try and harness those naturally forming energy transformations to adapt our lives.” says Jay Heaman, Manager of Strategic Initiatives, Oxford County.

Members of the community can read the Draft Plan and submit their questions, comments and feedback over the next 60 days at www.oxfordcounty.ca/speakup. The final version of the Plan is expected to be released in the fall of 2016. Oxford’s 100% RE goal is a target of the Future Oxford Community Sustainability Plan. For more information visit smartenergyoxford.ca and watch the series of videos that showcase the concept of 100% renewable energy.

Resources

Driving up Regional Cooperation for Renewables in the European Union

Renewable energy sources (RES) will have to play a predominant role in EU’s future energy mix. However, the current policy and regulatory framework does not entirely facilitate this transition but instead reflects a business-as-usual approach. The current RE target on EU level in the Climate and Energy 2030 Framework lacks ambition with regards to the low goal setting of “at least 27%” and due to its “EU-wide” level approach without member state contributions. In the light of this weak policy framework, there is one mechanism which may still help to increase the share of renewables to the scale and speed needed to counter today’s challenges: The idea of regional cooperations.

 

Regional cooperation can effectively bridge the gap between national renewable energy policies and a Europeanised approach to renewable energy deployment. Additionally, regional action across borders allows for participation of non-state actors, possibly a higher political legitimacy and fitted solutions for local conditions. A common cross-border identity might be facilitated through these projects and the revenue generated by the decentralized energy plants is more likely to stay within the region.

The study “Driving Regional Cooperation Forward in the 2030 Renewable Energy Framework”, written by the consultancy Ecofys on behalf of the Heinrich Böll Foundation’s EU Office (HBF EU), explores the potential benefits of regional renewables cooperation and provides policy suggestions on how such cooperation can effectively be enhanced. In addition, findings from the World Future Council`s programme on 100% Renewable Energy in the EU show that there is a window of opportunity for adapting the legislative framework to strengthen regional cooperation on renewable energy. To harvest this potential and develop a strategy for implementation, a comprehensive and inclusive policy dialogue is needed to a) build cross-sectorial and multi-level-governance networks, b) learn from pioneering regions and pilot projects and c) build political momentum for the topic.

In a policy dialogue which included a workshop, a study tour and several consultations with practitioners and legislators, the following policy recommendations were identified to drive up regional cooperation for RE in the EU:

1)         Define Regional Cooperation

2)         Strengthen Territorial Cohesion through specific regulatory provisions

3)         Integrate cross-sectorial cooperation into regional cooperation

4)         Engage local and regional authorities in development of national energy and climate plans

5)         Enable Micro-Level Regional Cooperation

Together with our partner Heinrich Böll Foundation (HBF) EU office, we aimed at providing concrete examples and transferable policy solutions by discussing crucial questions with and in frontrunner regions. Therefore it was be organised in the framework of HBF’s #Regions4GreenEconomy series which are organised together with the representatives of different German Länder in Brussels, and the Global 100% RE Campaign #Go100RE.

With this programme, we built on some of the policy recommendations that were outlined in the HBF report “Driving regional cooperation forward in the 2030 renewable energy framework” (2015) as well as the findings from the World Future Council`s programme on 100% Renewable Energy in the EU .

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Activities:

27074696870_ea42e42778_zThe kick-off event took place in the form of a stakeholder workshop on 25 and 26 of April 2016 in Brussels. It convened people from initiatives of cross-border cooperation, sharing learnings and examples from around Europe and representatives from EU institutions incl. European Commission, European Parliament, RE interests groups and energy regulators. In a policy dialogue it was explored how to foster RES deployment in the European Union by strengthening regions and regional cooperation. This report as well as this blog article share the insights and recommendation that were discussed. Please find all presentation and photos of the event below.

29344174463_5791ccbdfa_zFollowing up on this, in September 2016, a study-tour to the North Sea Region took place to build on these findings. 13 policy makers and shapers from 9 countries travelled 1.500 kilometers from Denmark via Germany and the Netherlands to Belgium. This 5-day tour served as a platform for in-depth learning about existing and possible future cooperation and provided thoughts, inspiration, opportunities and contacts to the participants. Watch this film to learn more about the tour. In a final meeting in the European Parliament, these insights were shared with representatives from the European Parliament and Commission. Please find all presentations and photos of the tour below.

In January 2017, three Members of the European Parliament Benedek Jávor (Greens/EFA), Jo Leinen (S&D) and Carolina Punset (ALDE) hosted a cross-party Policy Dialogue on this topic. European, national and local policy makers highlighted the role of renewable energy to re-connect the crises-stricken continent.

The debate has been summarized in this blog article.

 

Finally, in June 2017, we hosted a policy debate in the Committee of the Regions to discuss the particular tools and instruments for cross-border cooperation in the renewable energy sector with about 50 policy makers and key energy stakeholders from across Europe. By bringing local, regional and European stakeholders together, the policy debate provided input to the legislative process of the Clean Energy Package for All Europeans. A recording of the discussions can be viewed here. A full summary has been published here.


 

Regenerative Urban Development in China

Transforming cities into regenerative systems is a big challenge. This is especially true in China, where most of the world’s biggest cities are faced with severe pollution problems and the issues of urbanisation, sustainable resource use and environmental protection are at the top of the political agenda. The 4th Future of Cities Forum in Munich in 2014 showed that the concept of regenerative cities can be a path-breaking solution for China considering its rapid urbanisation. In June 2015 the WFC Commission on Climate and Energy launched a 5-year programme on Regenerative Urban Development in China with an office in Beijing.